10.4. DALSZY TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Exercise 64. The word “if” does not belong with Form Relativity only. We can change “if” for “whether”, when we talk about circumstances or results rather than provisions or causes.   We have the "if" we can change underlined, in the exercise.   To practice spoken comprehension, we can use abbreviated auxiliaries, … Continue reading 10.4. DALSZY TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

10.3. TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Envisioning language study as travel in a dimension, we could think about virtual words as guarding us against steep slopes. Let us warm up.   Exercise 60. To practice targeting time extents, we can use another virtual word, thimo. We can give it the gillyflower color, as for bimo.     Our … Continue reading 10.3. TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

10.2. RELATYWNOŚĆ FORMY: PROGRESSIVE

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) We would not have progress for something hypothetical only. We might question the making of Progressive auxiliary forms.   Do we need to shift our variables to a hypothetical time span, to make patterns as, "If we were lazy, we would have BEEN doING something else for the past hour" (10.1)?   … Continue reading 10.2. RELATYWNOŚĆ FORMY: PROGRESSIVE

10.1. NIERZECZYWISTA PRZESZŁOŚĆ CZY TRYB WARUNKOWY: RZECZYWISTY CZAS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Let us try a few more quotes.   More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― "If George Washington had been alive today", or "If Thomas Jefferson", or "If Alexander Hamilton", or "If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today…" Theodore … Continue reading 10.1. NIERZECZYWISTA PRZESZŁOŚĆ CZY TRYB WARUNKOWY: RZECZYWISTY CZAS

ROZDZIAŁ 10. RELATYWNOŚCI W FORMIE DOSTATEK

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) With Modal verbs and patterns as the Conditional or Unreal Past, we may feel about language form more as a reflection.   Let us see if we could apply our MODAL TIME FRAME to guidance on the Unreal Past or the Conditional. ***** There has been much dispute over the Conditional. Some … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 10. RELATYWNOŚCI W FORMIE DOSTATEK

9.4. Ćwiczenia na Modalną relatywność

PICTURE: A RENDERED RAINBOW

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) We do not need to develop a hypothetical target time. We can return to our arrow cues and practice thinking about our regular linguistic targets, adjusting the Modal form.   It is enough we render the grammatical target as the rainbow is painted in the picture above: with an approximation.   Exercise … Continue reading 9.4. Ćwiczenia na Modalną relatywność

9.3. DETAL MODALNEJ STRUKTURY

PICTURE: A MOLECULAR MODEL

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Modal Expression, especially the Interrogative or Negative, can give us some trouble, unless we approach the matter as science in a field: we analyze the molecules, see how they are doing, and make a model. We can recur to CHAPTER 5, as well as compare APPENDIX 4.   54. We CANNOT skip … Continue reading 9.3. DETAL MODALNEJ STRUKTURY

9.2. MODALNA RAMA CZASOWA

PICTURE: AN HOURGLASS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Neither the Modal verb form alone, as COULD or MIGHT, nor Modal syntax alone, as COULD HAVE or MIGHT HAVE, is capable of telling the target grammatical time.   However, in all natural languages, we always speak or write in context. This means that our linguistic activity always has a cognitive ground. … Continue reading 9.2. MODALNA RAMA CZASOWA

9.1. MODALNA SKŁADNIA, GRAMATYCZNA TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ LUB PRZESZŁOŚĆ

PICTURE: TWO CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Let us think about the two clocks pictured above. They show different hours. Let us say we ask what has happened, trying to explain why the clocks show different times.   Forms as below might address the question, "What has happened?" The question is in the grammatical PRESENT, and the target grammatical … Continue reading 9.1. MODALNA SKŁADNIA, GRAMATYCZNA TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ LUB PRZESZŁOŚĆ

ROZDZIAŁ 9. TREND W CENNYM CZASIE ROZPOZNAĆ

PICTURE: TWO HOUR GLASSES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) With Modal verbs, our view on time may become as with two hour glasses. Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time.   We also could say that Modal verbs mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name "modal" comes from the Latin word … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 9. TREND W CENNYM CZASIE ROZPOZNAĆ