6.5. DOCELOWY CZAS I RAMA

Exercise 37. We have our time frames for our guidance. We choose between the Simple and the Perfect, in the PAST

We put the verb in the form for the grammatical PAST, and give the arrow cue along with the mapping value. In language, we can seek inspiration with words. Let it be a simple chair this time.

We may only think about the logical cues and mapping values, as in the ■→MIND PRACTICE.

Example: His parents (surrender) his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan (suggest) playing the musical chairs, Art (throw) in three left hand gloves. One of them (belong) to Ms. Duncan.

Answer: {ON}; His parents surrendered his place in the kindergarten. When Ms. Duncan suggested playing the musical chairs, Art threw in three left hand gloves. One of them belonged to Ms. Duncan.

1. Despite the early predilection for challenge, he (choose) himself a chairborne job. The place (have) └┘ a requirement. It (allow) one person exactly.

2. Originally, he never (expect) of a woman to fill the chair. He (change) his mind at about 26, when the strategy almost (reduce) └┘ him to his local club armchair, for dialogue. He (speak) with Jin, to expand the office.

3. He (marry) her in summer. They (spend) their countryside honeymoon mostly bringing the chairs from the garden. His friend Jalen (persuade) him to go on a vacation, in a better weather. They (choose) Amtrak to journey. Art and Jin first (meet) in a parlor car. Face to face with their notebooks, they (realize) they were actually chatting with each other over the Unlimited (!)

4. Eva, his mother-in-law, (love) to say nobody should let predecessors set the measure for the chair. Art (have) a reservation. Own job always (be) └┘ by principle to be own.

5. Ms. Seges (be) └┘ a woman of resolve, throughout her life, and (know) how to talk table and chairs. Incontrovertibility (belong) with the Seges family ethos. She yet (agree) it was own work to have given her the walnut bobbin chairs.

Exercise 38. Please tell the time frames and mapping values (ON, IN, or TO), along with the grammatical time (PRESENT, PAST, or FUTURE). We have the arrow cues, if we need them.

Example: Her father (1. be) a nibmeister. She (2. have) a clear taste for good quality since she (3. be) a little girl.

Answer (we think about the frames and variables, minds first or solely):
(1) was, {ON} PAST;
(2) └┘ has had, {TO} PRESENT;
(3) was, {ON} PAST.

A. When she was in her early teens, she 4. (make) a miniature book. It 5. (be) three inches square.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 4-5

B. She 6. (keep) the it for her phrase book. She still 7. (happen) to add to it, though she 8. (make) many more such books.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 6,7,8

C. A young girl, she 9. (put) her miniature book in her jacket pocket and 10. (go) to sit by the river. Whenever a word 11. (come) to her mind, she 12. (write) it in with her special fountain pen.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 9-12

D. Her handwriting 13. (change) a little, since then. By and large, she 14. (adjust) her letters to the size of her note book. One day, she 15. (engross) her future husband’s name. The name 16. (remain) the only word to take a page entire, against the alphabetical order.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 13-16

E. Chantelle 17. (have) a collection of pens. Her favored inkwells 18. (be) glass, silver, and pewter. Her first print book 19. (tell) about a girl’s language of the heart.

PICTURE: EXERCISE 38, EXAMPLE CUES 17-19

Form (16) also might be “the name remains”: there are no universal rules to govern contexts, and we are free to decide on our own, dependent on our cognitive mapping.

Miniature books belong with arts. Their scopes may be the same as of standard volumes. They are smaller because they are miniaturized. Chantelle’s miniature book is one of the biggest sizes ― it is three inches square.

FROM THE KEY:
We do not have to use Past Perfect forms whenever anything happened earlier or preceded something else. We would need millions of past tense forms to speak about Old English, thinking only about the days and years since those times.

Amtrak Unlimited is a forum for Amtrak passengers.

How do we interpret words as incontrovertibility, also if our dictionary does not have it? Just browsing and reading dictionaries, we might get even surprised with how much we remember and “intuitively” use.

We can interpret incontrovertibility by the word build. The American Heritage online will show the word in•con•tro•vert•ible and explain that the verb to con•tro•vert may mean “to raise arguments against; voice opposition to”. It derives from the noun controversy. The noun consists of the particles contro– and versus.

Contro– or contra– can connote “against, opposite, contrasting”. The particle in– does not work in the sense “into” or “within”, with the particle con–. Try the ■→AMERICAN HERITAGE dictionary and our grapevine:

Word natures

The song was as if the guy believed there could be one love for everyone to feel. John said he’d never condescend to such total-it-arian-ism on emotion. He checked out and found Johnny Cash singing it, but that sounded different. ■→More

Feel welcome to further journey: ■→CHAPTER 7. TIME IN THE HEART AND MIND