Cztery kąty świata

Ażeby zobaczyć jak możemy mapować kognitywnie w języku, spróbujmy lekkiej łamigłówki. Jeżeli porównamy wyniki z rodziną, przyjaciółmi czy innymi ludźmi i nasze wyniki będą spójne, rzecz jest nam naturalna, nawet jeśli nie jest szeroko znana: nasza łamigłówka jest intuicyjna. Mamy cztery krótkie słówka i cztery wzorce. Spróbujmy dobrać owe wzorce i słówka w pary. Jednego … Continue reading Cztery kąty świata

10.4. DALSZY TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Exercise 64. The word “if” does not belong with Form Relativity only. We can change “if” for “whether”, when we talk about circumstances or results rather than provisions or causes.   We have the "if" we can change underlined, in the exercise.   To practice spoken comprehension, we can use abbreviated auxiliaries, … Continue reading 10.4. DALSZY TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

10.3. TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Envisioning language study as travel in a dimension, we could think about virtual words as guarding us against steep slopes. Let us warm up.   Exercise 60. To practice targeting time extents, we can use another virtual word, thimo. We can give it the gillyflower color, as for bimo.     Our … Continue reading 10.3. TRENING DLA ROZMOWY W CZASIE RZECZYWISTYM

10.2. RELATYWNOŚĆ FORMY: PROGRESSIVE

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) We would not have progress for something hypothetical only. We might question the making of Progressive auxiliary forms.   Do we need to shift our variables to a hypothetical time span, to make patterns as, "If we were lazy, we would have BEEN doING something else for the past hour" (10.1)?   … Continue reading 10.2. RELATYWNOŚĆ FORMY: PROGRESSIVE

10.1. NIERZECZYWISTA PRZESZŁOŚĆ CZY TRYB WARUNKOWY: RZECZYWISTY CZAS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Let us try a few more quotes.   More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― "If George Washington had been alive today", or "If Thomas Jefferson", or "If Alexander Hamilton", or "If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today…" Theodore … Continue reading 10.1. NIERZECZYWISTA PRZESZŁOŚĆ CZY TRYB WARUNKOWY: RZECZYWISTY CZAS

ROZDZIAŁ 10. RELATYWNOŚCI W FORMIE DOSTATEK

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) With Modal verbs and patterns as the Conditional or Unreal Past, we may feel about language form more as a reflection.   Let us see if we could apply our MODAL TIME FRAME to guidance on the Unreal Past or the Conditional. ***** There has been much dispute over the Conditional. Some … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 10. RELATYWNOŚCI W FORMIE DOSTATEK

9.4. Ćwiczenia na Modalną relatywność

PICTURE: A RENDERED RAINBOW

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) We do not need to develop a hypothetical target time. We can return to our arrow cues and practice thinking about our regular linguistic targets, adjusting the Modal form.   It is enough we render the grammatical target as the rainbow is painted in the picture above: with an approximation.   Exercise … Continue reading 9.4. Ćwiczenia na Modalną relatywność

9.3. DETAL MODALNEJ STRUKTURY

PICTURE: A MOLECULAR MODEL

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Modal Expression, especially the Interrogative or Negative, can give us some trouble, unless we approach the matter as science in a field: we analyze the molecules, see how they are doing, and make a model. We can recur to CHAPTER 5, as well as compare APPENDIX 4.   54. We CANNOT skip … Continue reading 9.3. DETAL MODALNEJ STRUKTURY

9.2. MODALNA RAMA CZASOWA

PICTURE: AN HOURGLASS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Neither the Modal verb form alone, as COULD or MIGHT, nor Modal syntax alone, as COULD HAVE or MIGHT HAVE, is capable of telling the target grammatical time.   However, in all natural languages, we always speak or write in context. This means that our linguistic activity always has a cognitive ground. … Continue reading 9.2. MODALNA RAMA CZASOWA