10.1. NIERZECZYWISTA PRZESZŁOŚĆ CZY TRYB WARUNKOWY: RZECZYWISTY CZAS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Let us try a few more quotes.   More than that, and breaking precedent once more, I do not intend to commence any sentence with these words ― "If George Washington had been alive today", or "If Thomas Jefferson", or "If Alexander Hamilton", or "If Abraham Lincoln had been alive today…" Theodore … Continue reading 10.1. NIERZECZYWISTA PRZESZŁOŚĆ CZY TRYB WARUNKOWY: RZECZYWISTY CZAS

ROZDZIAŁ 10. RELATYWNOŚCI W FORMIE DOSTATEK

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) With Modal verbs and patterns as the Conditional or Unreal Past, we may feel about language form more as a reflection.   Let us see if we could apply our MODAL TIME FRAME to guidance on the Unreal Past or the Conditional. ***** There has been much dispute over the Conditional. Some … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 10. RELATYWNOŚCI W FORMIE DOSTATEK

9.4. Ćwiczenia na Modalną relatywność

PICTURE: A RENDERED RAINBOW

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) We do not need to develop a hypothetical target time. We can return to our arrow cues and practice thinking about our regular linguistic targets, adjusting the Modal form.   It is enough we render the grammatical target as the rainbow is painted in the picture above: with an approximation.   Exercise … Continue reading 9.4. Ćwiczenia na Modalną relatywność

9.3. DETAL MODALNEJ STRUKTURY

PICTURE: A MOLECULAR MODEL

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Modal Expression, especially the Interrogative or Negative, can give us some trouble, unless we approach the matter as science in a field: we analyze the molecules, see how they are doing, and make a model. We can recur to CHAPTER 5, as well as compare APPENDIX 4.   54. We CANNOT skip … Continue reading 9.3. DETAL MODALNEJ STRUKTURY

9.2. MODALNA RAMA CZASOWA

PICTURE: AN HOURGLASS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Neither the Modal verb form alone, as COULD or MIGHT, nor Modal syntax alone, as COULD HAVE or MIGHT HAVE, is capable of telling the target grammatical time.   However, in all natural languages, we always speak or write in context. This means that our linguistic activity always has a cognitive ground. … Continue reading 9.2. MODALNA RAMA CZASOWA

9.1. MODALNA SKŁADNIA, GRAMATYCZNA TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ LUB PRZESZŁOŚĆ

PICTURE: TWO CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Let us think about the two clocks pictured above. They show different hours. Let us say we ask what has happened, trying to explain why the clocks show different times.   Forms as below might address the question, "What has happened?" The question is in the grammatical PRESENT, and the target grammatical … Continue reading 9.1. MODALNA SKŁADNIA, GRAMATYCZNA TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ LUB PRZESZŁOŚĆ

ROZDZIAŁ 9. TREND W CENNYM CZASIE ROZPOZNAĆ

PICTURE: TWO HOUR GLASSES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) With Modal verbs, our view on time may become as with two hour glasses. Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time.   We also could say that Modal verbs mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name "modal" comes from the Latin word … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 9. TREND W CENNYM CZASIE ROZPOZNAĆ

8.2. ĆWICZENIA NA WSZYSTKIE ASPEKTY

PICTURE: 4 ASPECT MAPPING VALUES WITH PATTERNS

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Exercise 45. We use the variables {IN}, {TO}, and {AT} with regard to the basic variable, {ON}. We include the grammatical Time, PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE.   We can warm up with virtual words. Let us remember the MIND PRACTICE: we can do the warm-up thinking and visualizing only.   Example: We … Continue reading 8.2. ĆWICZENIA NA WSZYSTKIE ASPEKTY

8.1. ISTOTY ZIEMSKIEJ ZMIENNA PODSTAWOWA

PICTURE: EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY, NASA

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY, PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.     Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.   As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.   In the … Continue reading 8.1. ISTOTY ZIEMSKIEJ ZMIENNA PODSTAWOWA

ROZDZIAŁ 8. ALCHEMIA CZASU DLA POCZĄTKUJĄCYCH

Most grammar resources agree that we have four Aspects in English, the Simple, the Progressive (or Continuous), the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive (or Perfect Continuous). By the label, we can say the Perfect Progressive should have features of the Perfect and the Progressive. We extracted general patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect in … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 8. ALCHEMIA CZASU DLA POCZĄTKUJĄCYCH