9.1. MODALNA SKŁADNIA, GRAMATYCZNA TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ LUB PRZESZŁOŚĆ

PICTURE: TWO CLOCKS SHOWING DIFFERENT TIMES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Let us think about the two clocks pictured above. They show different hours. Let us say we ask what has happened, trying to explain why the clocks show different times.   Forms as below might address the question, "What has happened?" The question is in the grammatical PRESENT, and the target grammatical … Continue reading 9.1. MODALNA SKŁADNIA, GRAMATYCZNA TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ LUB PRZESZŁOŚĆ

ROZDZIAŁ 9. TREND W CENNYM CZASIE ROZPOZNAĆ

PICTURE: TWO HOUR GLASSES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) With Modal verbs, our view on time may become as with two hour glasses. Modal verbs do not narrate the real time. Their manner is relative to real time.   We also could say that Modal verbs mediate between the grammatical Time and Aspect. The name "modal" comes from the Latin word … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 9. TREND W CENNYM CZASIE ROZPOZNAĆ

8.2. ĆWICZENIA NA WSZYSTKIE ASPEKTY

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Exercise 45. We use the variables {IN}, {TO}, and {AT} with regard to the basic variable, {ON}. We include the grammatical Time, PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE.   We can warm up with virtual words. Let us remember the MIND PRACTICE: we can do the warm-up thinking and visualizing only.   Example: We … Continue reading 8.2. ĆWICZENIA NA WSZYSTKIE ASPEKTY

8.1. ISTOTY ZIEMSKIEJ ZMIENNA PODSTAWOWA

PICTURE: EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY, NASA

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) PLANET EARTH FROM ONE MILLION MILES AWAY, PICTURE BY NASA DEEP SPACE CLIMATE OBSERVATORY.     Let us compare the Simple and the Perfect, our cognitive values {ON} and {TO}, for the verb to HAVE.   As in EXERCISE 14, we can think about language content and inner framework.   In the … Continue reading 8.1. ISTOTY ZIEMSKIEJ ZMIENNA PODSTAWOWA

ROZDZIAŁ 8. ALCHEMIA CZASU DLA POCZĄTKUJĄCYCH

Most grammar resources agree that we have four Aspects in English, the Simple, the Progressive (or Continuous), the Perfect, and the Perfect Progressive (or Perfect Continuous). By the label, we can say the Perfect Progressive should have features of the Perfect and the Progressive. We extracted general patterns for the Simple, Progressive, and Perfect in … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 8. ALCHEMIA CZASU DLA POCZĄTKUJĄCYCH

7.1. PRAKTYKA DLA SERCA I UMYSŁU

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Exercise 39. Let us provide synonyms for stative and dynamic senses of the verbs below. We can use the Infinitive also with the Progressive.   SUB-CHAPTER 2.1. presents the Infinitive. APPENDIX 1 lays out the basics about verbs.   Example: to think   Answer: stative, variable {ON} to consider, to believe ***** … Continue reading 7.1. PRAKTYKA DLA SERCA I UMYSŁU

ROZDZIAŁ 7. CZAS W UMYŚLE I SERCU

Kiedy przychodzi mówić o sercach i umysłach, różnica między Aspektami Simple i Progressive może być jak wyżej: jedna twarz radosna, druga nieszczęśliwa. Saying, "I am hating you", could be a joke. Saying, "I hate you", could declare hatred. Most grammar books tell about “stative” or “static verbs”. The books enumerate such "stative verbs" to remember … Continue reading ROZDZIAŁ 7. CZAS W UMYŚLE I SERCU

6.5. DOCELOWY CZAS I RAMA

PICTURE: A BOWL OF BLUEBERRIES

(TRANSLATION IN PROGRESS) Berry target, photo by Brigitte Tohm from Pexels.   With goals, purposes and targets, the matter is to have what we want, where we want it, and when we want it, like a bowl of berries in the picture above.   For language skill, we need to practice linguistic targets.   Exercise … Continue reading 6.5. DOCELOWY CZAS I RAMA

6.4. WIĘCEJ ĆWICZEŃ NA GRAMATYKĘ I SŁÓWKA

BOUTIQUE D'BONHEUR

Ćwiczenia gramatyczne mogą „kupić” nam trochę szczęścia na testach i egzaminach — tutaj mamy trochę więcej gramatycznego “butiku szczęścia”, a dobry amerykański nie musi być śmiertelnie poważny. Więcej→Emoticon, a smile

6.3. ĆWICZENIA: ASPEKT I RAMA CZASOWA

PICTURE: CAMILLE PISSARRO, BOULEVARD MONTMARTRE, MORNING, CLOUDY WEATHER

Ćwiczenia do wykonania w myślach, na Aspekt i ramę czasową. 2. The skylark found nothing to outbid the bit of cosmos with a squid.
8. The spotted redshank bachelorette did reset her buret for the bouncing bet. Więcej→
Joke emoticon